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What is an IP

IP is the most widespread standard for communications in the world, most of our networking equipment and software is reliant on IP or else on other protocols layered on top of IP.

IPv4 and IPv6, these two are version of the IP technology that is prevalent today. The IPv4 is used mostly in home networks , where as the IPv6 is being increasingly preferred by research facilities and educational institutions.

IPv4 addresses are 4bytes long (32bits), they are also called octets. IP notation is usually in dotted decimal form as this makes it easier for humans to work with. Dotted decimal means there is a period between each of the bytes in the address. (for instance 10.0.01)
The full range of an IP address is from 0.0.0.0-255.255.255.255. As each byte ranges from a min value of 0 to a max of 255.

IPv6 addresses are 16 bytes long (128bits), with such a range IPv6 can support up to
300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible addresses. They are written in the form of ;{hhhh;hhhh;hhhh;hhhh;hhhh;hhhh;hhhh;hhhh}, You can see that paired bytes are separated by colons and each byte resembles a pair of hexadecimal numbers(for instance,E3D7:0000:0000:0000:51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420)

There are often many bytes with a zero value, which are not shown in shorthand representation (E3D7::51F4:9BC8:C0A8:6420)
Sometimes IPv4 addresses are extended into IPv6, in such a case the rightmost four bytes are rewritten in IPv4 notation (E3D7::51F4:9BC8:192.168.100.32)

IPv6 addresses can be written in different ways ;full, shorthand or mixed notation


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